1865 Home Front
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From Mobile  
Progress of the Siege - Spanish Fort Invested -

Narrow Escape of Admiral Thatcher near Spanish Battery

Mobile Bay, March 28, 1865

A brisk fire has been kept up all day. Our loss yesterday and to-day amounts to forty killed. The fort is surrounded by our forces on the land side. At midday the fleet got over the bank and cut the enemy's retreat off by the bay. Orders were sent to the fleet not to fire, as our men are around up to within 300 yards of the fort.
The iron-clad U.S. gunboat Milwaukee was sunk soon after arriving by the
explosion of a torpedo. Part of her decks are still out of water. No lives were lost.
The rebel rams and transports since the arrival of the fleet, have laid in shore quiet. The enemy destroyed all the bridges between Spanish Fort and Blakely on the 26th.
Gen. Steele, with his force from Pensacola, are expected to arrive at Blakely on the 1st of April. When last heard from them officially, they had arrived as far as Pollard with reserves.

Mobile, Ala, March 30
Firing ceased yesterday afternoon, and up to 10 o'clock this morning had not been resumed. Our sharpshooters on the south side keep the rebel heads down.

They cannot use those guns.
All communication with Spanish Fort is now cut off, our troops surrounding it on the land side and the fleet in the bay.

Five torpedoes were picked up last night by Capt. Dr. Boys near Blakely river. Our transports run in above, towards the landing near Spanish Fort, with supplies. All the coast south is now in our possession One man died last night who was injured on the Osage.
A severe storm set in last evening with thunder and lightning. It rained incessantly for six hours. Several of our gunboats were driven from their anchorage, but no great damage was done. Admiral Thatcher had a fortunate escape yesterday.

A torpedo was found a few days ago by one of our gunboats floating down the bay and picked up. The powder was emptied out as it was supposed to be before being sent on the flag-ship.
Two men were sent to take the percussion cap off it, when it exploded, the percussion tube striking the deck. The two men were badly wounded. The Admiral was sitting not more that five yards off, large pieces of shell flying all around. If more powder had been in it there is no knowing what damage would

have been done.





He will Force Him to Surrender

Official War Department
Washington April 7-10 a.m.

To Major Gen. Dix
Gen. Sheridan an attacked and routed Lee's army and captured Gens. Ewell, Hershaw, Button, Coree and many other general officers, several thousand prisoners and a large number of cannon.
He expects to force Lee to surrender all that is left of his army. Details will be given as speedily as possible and the telegraph is working badly.

Washington, April 7-11 a.m.
To. Maj. Gen. Dix.
The following telegrams concerning the victory won yesterday by Maj. Gen. Sheridan over Lee's army have just been received by this department.
(signed) R.M. Stanton, Sec. of War.

City Point, April 7-8:25 a.m.
To Hon. E.M. Stanton:
At 11:15 a.m. yesterday, at Burksville Station, Gen. Grant handed me the following from Gen. Sheridan.
(signed) A. Lincoln

To Lieut. Gen. Grant:
I have the honor to report that the enemy made a stand at the intersection of the Burkeville Station road, with the road upon which they were retreating. I attacked them with two divisions of the 6th army corps, and routed them handsomely making a connection with the cavalry. I am still pressing them with both cavalry and infantry. Up to the present time we have captured Gens. Ewell, Kershaw, Button, Corse, Debary and Custis Lee, several thousand prisoners, 15 pieces of artillery including caissons, and a large number of wagons.

If the thing is pressed I think Lee will surrender.
P.H. Sheridan, Maj. Gen. Comd'g.

City Point, April 7-9 am
To Hon. E. M. Stanton:
The following further intelligence is just received.
(Signed) A. Lincoln

Burksville, Va., April 7, 1865
To A. Lincoln:
The following telegram is respectfully forward for your information.
U.S. Grant, Lt. Gen.

Headquarters Second Army Corps
April 6-7:30 p.m.

Maj. Gen. A. S. Webb:
Our last fight, just before dark, at Tailor's Grove, gave us two guns, three flags, a considerable number of prisoners, two hundred wagons and seventy ambulances with mules and horses to about one-half the ambulances. There are between thirty and fifty wagons, in addition, abandoned and destroyed along the road - some battery wagons, forges and limbers.
I have already already reported to you the capture of several Generals and some prisoners and the fact that the road for nearly three miles in strewn with tents and baggage, cooking utensils, some ammunition, and materials of all kinds. The wagons are across the approach to the bridges and it will take some time to clear it. 

The enemy is in position on the heights beyond, with artillery. The bridge is partially destroyed, and the approaches on the other side are of soft bottom land. We cannot advance to-morrow in the same manner we have to-day. As soon as I get my troops up a little (we are considerably mixed) I might push a column down the road, but it is evident I cannot follow rapidly during the night.
A. A.
Humphrey's, Maj. Gen.

Philadelphia, April 7,-1 p.m. - 1865
Jay Cooke has received a dispatch from H. D. Cooke at Washington, stating that Lee's whole army is cornered and has surrendered. This is positive.

Toronto, April 7, 1865
The St Albans raiders arrived her to-day from Montreal.

They were brought before the Recorder this afternoon charged with misdemeanor. They applied for a delay until Sunday, to obtained counsel which was granted. They were remanded and the case adjourned till Monday.

Milwaukee Sentinel   [New!]
April 8, 1865

Speech by Vice President Johnson,
(From the Washington Chronicle, April 4)

Speech by Vice President Johnson,
(From the Washington Chronicle, April 4)

We are now, my friends, winding up a rebellion - a great effort that has been made by bad men to overthrow the government of the United States -
a government founded upon free principles and operated by the best stock of the revolution. You must indulge me in making one single remark in connection with myself. At the time that the traitors in the Senate of the United States plotted against the government and wintered into a conspiracy more foul, more execrable, and more odious, than that of Cetaline against the Romans, I
happened to be a member of that body, and as to loyalty, stood solitary and alone among the Senators from the Southern States.
I was then and there called upon to know what I could do with such traitors, and I want to repeat my reply here. I said, if we had an Andrew Jackson, he would hang them as high as Haman, but as he is no more and sleeps in his grave in his own  beloved State, where traitors
and treason have never insulted his tomb and the very earth that covers his remains, humble as I am, when you ask me what I would do my reply is I would arrest  them; I would convict them and I would hang them.
As humble as I am and have been, I have pursued but one undeviating course.

All that I have - life, limb and property - have been put at the disposal of the country in this great struggle.
I have been in the field, I have been everywhere where this great rebellion was.
I have pursued it until I believe I can now see its termination. Since the world began there never has been a rebellion of such gigantic proportions, so infamous in character, so diabolical in motive, so entirely disregardful of the laws of civilized war. It has introduced the most savage model of warfare ever practiced upon the earth.
I will repeat here a remark for which I have been in no small degree censured.

What is it, allow me to ask, that has sustained the nation in this great struggle?
The cry has been, you know, that our Government was not strong enough for a time of rebellion; that in such a time she would  have to contend against internal ! weakness as well as internal foes - We have now given the world evidence that each is not the fact; and when the rebellion shall have been
crushed out and the nation shall once again have settled down in peace, our Government will rest upon a more enduring basis than ever before.
But, my friends, in what has the great strength of the government consisted?

Has it been in one in power? Has it been in some autocrat or in some one man who held absolute government: No!
I thank God I have it in my power to promise that the government has derived its strength from the American people. They have issued the edict; they have exercised the power that has resulted in the overthrow of the rebellion and
there is not another government upon the face of the earth that could have withstood the shock.
We now congratulate ourselves that we possess the strongest the freest and the best government the world over saw - Thank God that we have lived  through this trial and that looking in your intelligent faces here to-day I can announce to you the great fact that Petersburg, the outpost to the strong citadel, has been occupied by our brave and gallant officers and our untiring invincible soldiers. And not content with that, they have captured the citadel itself, the strong hold of traitors. Richmond is ours and is now occupied by the forces of the United States! Her gates have been entered and the glorious stars and stripes, the emblem of Union of power and of supremacy now float over the enemy's capitol!
In the language of another, let that old flag rise higher, until it meets the sun in his coming, and let the parting day linger to play upon its ample folds. It is the flag of your country, it is your flag, it is my flag and it bids defiance to all the
nations of the earth and to the encroachments of all the powers combined. It is not my intention to make any imprudent remarks or allusions but the hour will come when those nations that exhibited toward us such insolence and improper interference in the midst of adversity and as they supposed of our weakness will learn that this is a government of the people, possessing power enough to make itself felt and respected.
In the midst of our rejoicing we must not forget to drop a tear for those gallant fellows who have shed their blood that their government might triumph. We cannot forget them when we view the man-bloody battle fields of the war, the

new-made graves our maimed friends and relatives who have left their limbs, as it were, on the enemy 's soil and others who have been consigned to their long narrow houses with no winding sheet save their blankets saturated with their blood.
One word more and I have done. It is this, I am in favor of leniency; but in my opinion evil doers should be punished. Treason is the highest crime known in
the catalogue of crimes and for him that is guilty of it - for him that is willing to
lift his impious hand against the authority of the nation - I would say death is too easy a punishment. My notion is that treason must be made odious; that traitors must be impoverished, their social power broken though; they must be
made to feel the penalty of their crime. You, my friends, have traitors in your very midst and treason needs rebuke and punishment here as well as elsewhere.
It is not the men in the field who are the greatest traitors. It is the men who
have encouraged them to imperil their lives while they themselves have remained at  home at expending their means and exerting all their power to overthrow the government. Hence I say this! the halter to intelligent, influential traitors! But to the honest boy, to the deluded man who has been deceived into the rebel ranks I would extend leniency; I would say return to your allegiance, renew your support to the government and become a good citizen; but the leaders I would hang.
I hold too that wealthy traitors should be made to renumerate those men who have suffered as a consequence of their crime - Union men who have lost their property, who have been driven from their homes. beggars and wanderers

among strangers. It is well to talk about these things here to-day in addressing the well informed persons who compose this audience. You can to a very great extent aid in molding public opinion and in giving it a proper direction.
Let us commence the work. We have put down these traitors in arms.

Let us put them down in law, in public judgment and in the morals of the world.

No Court-Owing to the fact that our Sheriff has enlisted and gone to the war and to the fact that there is no Under Sheriff the Clerk of Court could not legally draw a jury and thus we are obliged to go without our regular -Owing to the fact that our Sheriff has enlisted and gone to the war and to the fact that there is no Under Sheriff the Clerk of Court could not legally draw a jury and thus we are obliged to go without our regular Jury term of Court. 

We think Polk County can stand it.
Polk County Press

Deputy United States Marshal H. E. Burpee, day before , day before yesterday arrested Samuel Boynton and Edward Austin of Monroe, Green County charged with the crime of enlisting minors under eighteen years of age, without the consent of their parents.
They were yesterday brought before Willard Merrill United States Court Commissioner for examination and the hearing was adjourned in order that further testimony might be obtained the prisoners being put under bonds for their appearance in the sum of one thousand dollars each.
Mr. Boynton is Deputy Proviso Marshal at Monroe and the arrest created quite an excitement in that place-
Janesville Gazette

Burned at Last - A grand light on Monday night was seen near Mr. David Ferguson's caused by the burning of a huge heap of lumber, trash &c. This material was piled up we understand some three years ago to be be burned when the news came of the fall of Richmond. The news came and - A grand light on Monday night was seen near Mr. David Ferguson's caused by the burning of a huge heap of lumber, trash &c. This material was piled up we understand some three years ago to be be burned when the news came of the fall of Richmond. The news came and Monday night the torch was applied to the emblematic funeral pile-
Waupun Times.

April 10, 1865   
Municipal Court
Proceedings at the police court were rather dull and uninteresting on Saturday.
Peter Bellinghauser was fined $1.00 and costs for driving on the sidewalk.
Patrick Delahaunthy paid $5.00 and costs for the privilege usually claimed by an American freeman, of doing what he pleased.

It pleased him to be disorderly.
Phillip Rossbach was arrested some days since for assault and battery, and being convicted, was fined $10.00 and costs.
Sophia Rossback was disorderly, and fined $1.00 and costs.

[New!]Day Thieves-There is no doubt that this city is now infested withThere is no doubt that this city is now infested with a gang of thieves who are carrying on their pilfering operations in broad day light when people generally are least watchful.
Last Thursday Mr. O. B. Sanford and Mr. M. Owen both had a set of harness stolen from their barns in the middle of the afternoon.
Last Sunday the house of Rev. Mr. Boynton was entered while the family were attending Church and a sum of money and several cherished mementos were stolen. These facts should place all our citizens on their guard and make them careful how they leave their dwellings when absent.
We hope soon to hear that some of the petit larceny banditti are brought to justice for those sneaking depredations-
Watertown Democrat.


Chicago,  April 10, 1865
There is a private dispatch in town from New York received this afternoon stating that Raleigh has been captured, and Johnston's army surrendered!
A private dispatch from New York, at 3:30 this p.m. quoted gold at 144.

Cairo, April 10, 1865
The War Eagle has the following specials!
PADUCAH, April 10, 1865
The steamer just in from Eastport brings the gratiying intelligence of the complete route of Forrest's rebel army in a recent


New York, April 10, 1865

Gold to-night 145

The annoucement of Lee's surrender last night created the greatest excitement in this city. Impromptu illuninations of many private buildings quickly followed.

The announcement of Lee's surrender last night created the greatest excitement in this city. Impromptu illuminations of many private buildings quickly followed.

The streets were filled with people screeching, singing and dancing with joy.
We have to-day received dispatches from almost every city, village and hamlet in the country showing that the same joy prevails
throughout the land.
The Commercial's special says that John C. Breckenridge was known to be with Lee on Friday and hopes are entertained that he has been captured.
The steamer City of Dubin, which was to sail to-morrow for Liverpool was dispatched this afternoon at 4 o'clock in order to take out the news of Lee's capitulation. She is in light trim and will probably make a quick voyage.
The following received here today dated Washington, March 9th, 3:30 p.m. Describes the condition of Secretary Seward in much easier to-day. His jaw was fractured and the pain of setting it was very great. His arm does not give him so much pain as it did. the physicians report all the symptoms favorable.
The Commercial's special says orders will be sent to our Generals everywhere to open communication with the enemy and commanders of rebels in their front and offer them the same terms which were accepted by Lee.

No difficulty is anticipated except in Texas.

April 11, 1865    [New!]
The rebels are fortifying, both the Weldon and Raleigh and hardly know whether to expect Sherman first at one place or the other. There is a strong probability that all attempts at defense will be abandoned, in view of the fact that the only possible reason which existed for preventing the march of Sherman toward Virginia has been removed by the events of the past week.

Rapid Pedestrianism - The Army of the Potomac entered Petersburg on Sunday morning. On the following Tuesday, Grant telegraphs that these same soldiers were at Nottoway Station, forty-three miles West of the Cockade City, and would be at Burkesville Junction by night, nine miles further; and this too, after fighting by day and watching by night behind their fortifications for nearly a week previous. Can any doubt the through enthusiasm and determination of the soldiers of the Republic to put down this unholy rebellion?

Rebel Editors[New!]
Leaving their Inheritance Behind Them
The author of the following sentence, descriptive of the raising
of the Union flag over Richmond.

April 11, 1865
Four years ago on the day fixed for final adjournment the sad news of the fall of Fort Sumter was transmitted to the Legislature. Today, thank God!

and next to him, the brave officers and soldiers of our army and navy, I am permitted to transmit to you the official intelligence of the surrender of General Lee and his Army- the last prop of the rebellion.

Let us rejoice and thank the Ruler of the Universe for victory and prospects of an honorable peace
(Signed) Jas. T. Lewis.
A salute was fired, bells were rung, bon-fires blazed, men sang and cheered
and every demonstration of joy ever the good news last night.
The University is illuminated to-night and it is proposed to have a celebration
here Friday.

The Milwaukee Sentinel
April 12, 1865

In nothing, in our judgment, have the great qualities of Gen. Grant so fully revealed themselves, as in his late correspondence with Gen. Lee, resulting the surrender of the army of the latter.
With an opportunity to still further protract the war which has brought him so much of position and fame and with a chance to minister to his personal vanity, such as was never before offered to a general, by imposing humiliating truce on
a fallen foe, binding that foe in fact to his carriage wheels, he yet kept prominent in his whole correspondence the desire for peace and in his terms of surrender remembered only the fraternal Union for which alone legitimately the war had been prosecuted.
No great admirer heretofore of Gen. Grant, the late developments of his military plans and this correspondence following the success of those plans leave us entirely unable to find fitting terms to express our admiration of him. We dare not and would not seek to displace Washington, by proclaiming Grant "First in war, first in peace and first in the hearts of his countrymen" but shall we not be justified in saying, having in view the pater patrie, equal in war, equal in peace, and equal in the hearts of his countrymen?
For what greater qualities in war or in peace have been manifested then by Grant?
He has handled armies in numbers such as never before were in the control and under the guidance of one mind - his plans have required more co-operations, combinations and separate movements, all concentration to one point and contemplating one end, than were ever before sought or required to be made.
Xerxes led an army of one or two million into into Greece, who came back fugitives - and Bonaparte led nearly half a million into Russia - very few of whom ever came back; which are the only instances in history now in our mind of greater forces led under one head. Grant, however, did not come back
unsuccessfully from the enemy's country, his men are not fugitives, everything worked as he willed and all successfully.
Is it out of place to call him ever a greater captain than Napoleon? And then comes the
crowning act.

Peace is possible without dishonor; union is possible, requiring only the subordination of all personal feelings and personal ambitions;
and his voice is for peace and union.

All fame, and honor and gratitude to General Grant.
And there is still another source of great satisfaction. It will be safe to assume that the action of General Grant, if not suggested by President Lincoln is at least not in opposition to his views. - They work in harmony. The humor, glory,
integrity of the country are all satisfied by the war, and now our rulers and generals give us unmistakable tokens that we are to have a Christian peace and through it, a fraternal Union.
What more as a nation and people, can we desire?

Mr. Lincoln's Inaugural Address   [New!]
The following in the article of the London Spectator on Mr. Lincoln's Inaugural address, in full;

"The political news from America is important. On the 4th inst., the day of inaugurating his second term, President Lincoln read as short state paper which for political weight, moral dignity and unaffected solemnity has had
not equal in our time.

His presidency began, he says, with the effort of both parties to avoid war.
"To strengthen, perpetuate and extend the slave interest was the object for which the insurgents would rend the Union by war, while the government claimed the right to do no more than restrict the territorial enlargement of it.
Both parties read the same Bible and prayed to the same God. Each invokes his aid against the other. The prayers of both cannot be answered, that of neither has been answered fully for the Almighty has His own purpose. 
Mr. Lincoln goes on to confess, for the North, its partnership in the original guilt of slavery.
Woe unto the world because of offences, for it must needs be that offences come, but woe unto that man by whom the offence cometh! If we shall suppose American slavery one of those offences which in the providence of God must needs come but which having continued through his appointed time, He now wills to remove and that he gives both North and South this terrible war as was due to those by whom the offence came, we shall not discern that there is any departure from those divine attributes which believers in the living God always ascribe to Him.
Fondly do we hope, fervently do we pray, that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. Yet if it be God's will that it continue until the wealth piled by bondmen, by two hundred and fifty years' unrequited toil, shall be sunk and
until every drop of blood drawn with the lash shall be repaid by another drawn with the sword as was said three thousand years ago, so still it must be said that the judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether.
With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for those who shall have borne the battle and for
their widows and orphans.
And with all this, let us strive after a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations."
No statesman ever uttered words stamped at once with the seal of so deep a wisdom and so great a simplicity The village attorney, of whom Sir. G. C. Lewis and many other wise men wrote with so much scorn in 1861, seems destined to be one of those foolish things of the world which are destined to confound the wise, one of those weak things which shall confound the things which are mighty.
Milwaukee Sentinel, Weds., April 12, 1865


The Hartford Times, the oldest exponent to Democracy in New England, pleasantly explains the large Republican majorities in the Connecticut election on Monday, on the theory that the Democrats were so busy celebrating Grant's victories and the Capture of Richmond, that they were unable to spare time to go to the polls.

Milwaukee Sentinel, July 12, 1865

Correspondence of the Sentinel
Camp 6th wis. Vet. Vols
Near Jeffersonville, Ind,
July 1st, 1865

EDITORS SENTINEL-Today the old Iron Brigade-that gallant organization which has earned its place in History by deeds of heroism on the battle-fields of Gainesville, Bull Run, South Mountain Antietam, Gettysburg, Wilderness, Spotsylvania and Petersburg, is to be dissolved forever, by the mustering out of the Seventh Wisconsin Vet. Vols, one of the oldest and best regiments of the brigade
Last summer, the work commenced when the noble old Second, whose term of service had expired left us at Bottom Bridge on the Chickahominy, and a little later the Nineteenth Indiana Vols. Was consolidated with the Twentieth Indiana, and thus we lost out two oldest regiments.
It was a sorrowful day when these regiments left the Brigade, The Nineteenth marched out at Reverse arms, and many were the tears shed by as gallant Hoosiers as ever left the State of Indiana, Still later the Twenty-fourth Michigan volunteers was detached from the Brigade, and sent to Springfield, Ill. To keep the "sucker" conscripts in durance vile-thus leaving but the two regiments, the Sixth and Seventh Wisconsin, and now to complete the work of dissolution, the gallant "Hungry Seventh," as they were called by the Second boys is to go home and be citizens once more.
Thus ends the career of a brigade whose reputation the Union over, for patriotism courage and endurance was second to none in the Northern army. They have shed a bright luster on the fame of our State, and for themselves thy have only to make known the fact of having once belonged to the renowned Iron Brigade to receive the homage and respect an emperor would be proud of. The soldiers who have belonged to the organization at different periods all feel proud of the privilege of saying they once were members of it; and now that it is one of the things of the past, the remembrance of its deeds of valor will forever by the dearest thoughts of those whose daring courage ns steady patriotism made the nave of the Iron Brigade famous and glorious throughout the length and breadth of the land the proud record of this brigade is imperishable.
Wisconsin, Michigan and Indiana can say with truth that they have furnished the bravest soldiers of the war and they have had their shoulders to the wheel ever since the rebellion broke out. Their soldiers have never faltered, in the dark days after the second battle of Bull Run and Lee's invasion of Maryland they were confident that the fortunes of the Union army would chance that Right would be vindicated-and the result proved they were not wrong.
The Sixth, which is the last regiment of this brigade, is now commanded by Brevet Lieut. Col. D.B. Dailey, Col. Kellogg having been assigned to the command of the Second Brigade of this Division.
Col. Dailey ahs risen from the ranks solely through merit. He enlisted in Capt. Colwell's Co. B, of the Second Wisconsin Infantry, early in the spring of '61. The Colonel is a gallant officer, and deserved the comparatively high rank he has attained. He is a self make man, a good officer and has the confidence of his superiors. At the time of the consolidation of the Second with the Sixth Wisconsin regiment he was promoted to major and has since been brevetted Lieut Colonel for gallantry of the field of battle.
The Colonel has been several times wounded. He has always been a true man to the government and at the outbreak of the rebellion, staked his life and health in the great struggle, which has just ended for the vindication of democratic principles.
The Sixth regiment numbers now about four hundred men, mostly conscripts and recruits whose terms of service will expire next fall. The boys are all very anxious to get home to their families and friends and enjoy a season of rest and peace. There is considerable grumbling because they cannot go home with their old commander of the Seventh and indeed the Seventh would rather wait a little longer if they could have their company in the glad journey homeward. 
The Seventh goes out of the service in accordance with an order from the War Department to muster out 15,000 of the Army of the Tennessee, and the oldest organization were to be the favored ones. The Seventh mustered into the service as veterans three or four days before the Sixth and they are the lucky boys.